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The international Conference on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights: Global Trends in Participation, Representation and Access to Public Services was held from 18-21 November 2008, in Mexico City. The present document emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the work of IDRC-supported researchers. It comprises a set of policy recommendations that, for the first time, define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It is intended as a resource for action, to be taken up by policy-makers, politicians, multilateral, bilateral and donor agencies, and civil society organizations seeking to promote and protect equal, equitable, and effective citizenship for all people. The Conference was organized by Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Government of Mexico, in partnership with a number of multilateral development agencies. Building on research findings and policy recommendations from a series of projects supported by IDRC in sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. The Conference critically examined decentralization and local governance with regard to women's participation, representation, and access to public services; and provided a forum for representatives of government, civil society, international development agencies, and others to share their experiences of implementing decentralization and local governance policies, and identify gaps and entry points for further research.